Histrionic Personality Disorder
Histrionic personality disorder is one of a group of conditions called dramatic personality disorders. People with these disorders have intense, unstable emotions and distorted self-images.
For people with histrionic personality disorder, their self-esteem depends on the approval of others and does not arise from a true feeling of self-worth. They have an overwhelming desire to be noticed, and often behave dramatically or inappropriately to get attention. The word histrionic means “dramatic or theatrical.”
Impulse Control Disorders (ICD)
Impulse control disorder includes many disorders such as compulsive gambling, intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania and pyromania (fire-starting). Other compulsive behaviours related to the body include trichotillomania(an urge to pull one’s hair out), onychophagia (compulsive nail biting) and dermatillomania (compulsive skin picking). The onset of these disorders usually occurs between the ages of 7 and 15.
Impulsivity, the key feature of these disorders, can be thought of as seeking a small, short term gain; this gain is at the expense of a large and long term loss. Those with the disorder repeatedly demonstrate failure to resist their behavioural impulsiveness.
Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED)
Intermittent explosive disorder is characterised by repeated episodes of aggressive, violent behaviour in which you react completely out of proportion to the situation. There are many examples of IED which can manifest in road rage, abuse toward a family member, unnecessary anger and being bad tempered. Some people throw or break objects during these episodes of intermittent explosive disorder.
People with intermittent explosive disorder may attack others and their belongings, causing injury and damage to property. People with this disorder may feel remorse, regret or embarrassment after.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Narcissistic Personality Disorder involves arrogant behaviour, a lack of empathy for other people, and a need for admiration-all of which must be consistently evident at work and in relationships. People who are narcissistic are frequently described as cocky, self-centred, manipulative, and demanding. Narcissists may concentrate on unlikely personal outcomes (e.g., fame) and may be convinced that they deserve special treatment.
Related Personality Disorders: Antisocial, Borderline, and Histrionic.
Narcissism is a less extreme version of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Narcissism involves cockiness, being manipulative, selfish and vanity-a love of mirrors. Narcissists tend to have high self-esteem on the surface, but deep down are very insecure. However, the latest evidence indicates that narcissists are actually secure or grandiose at both levels.
Onlookers may infer that insecurity is there because narcissists tend to be defensive when their self-esteem is threatened (e.g., being ridiculed); narcissists can be aggressive. Their lifestyle may more generally reflect sensation-seeking or impulsivity (e.g., risky sex, bold financial decisions).
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic condition that is usually associated with obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour. An obsession is an unwanted, unpleasant thought, image or urge that repeatedly enters a person’s mind and results in anxiety. A compulsion is a repetitive behaviour or mental act that a person feels compelled to perform to try to avert or undo the effect of the obsession.
Unlike the normal use of the word ‘obsession’, which may describe something that an individual enjoys, the obsession in OCD is unpleasant and frightening. The person feels the need to carry out their compulsion in order to prevent their obsession becoming true. For example, someone who is obsessively scared that they will catch a disease may feel compelled to have a shower every time they use a toilet.
OCD is one of the most common mental health conditions. It is estimated that up to 3 in 100 adults and up to 5 in 100 children and teenagers have OCD. OCD usually starts in early adult life, with men tending to report earlier symptoms than women. However, OCDsymptoms can begin at any time, including childhood.
The symptoms of OCD can range from mild to severe. For example, some people with OCD will spend about an hour a day engaged in obsessive compulsive thinking and behaviour. For others, the condition can completely take over their life.
Paranoid Personality Disorder
Paranoid personality disorder is a disorder characterised by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalised mistrust of others. Individuals with this personality disorder may be hypersensitive, easily feel slighted, and habitually relate to the world by vigilant scanning of the environment for clues or suggestions that may validate their fears or biases.
Paranoid individuals are eager observers. They think they are in danger and look for signs and threats of that danger, potentially not appreciating other evidence. They tend to be guarded and suspicious and have quite constricted emotional lives. Their reduced capacityfor meaningful emotional involvement and the general pattern of isolated withdrawal often lend a quality of isolation to their life experience. People with this particular disorder may or may not have a tendency to bear grudges, suspicious, tendency to interpret others’ actions as hostile, persistent tendency to self-reference, or a tenacious sense of personal right
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder caused by very stressful, frightening or distressing events. The type of events that can cause PTSD include:
- being held hostage
- military combat
- natural disasters, such as severe floods, earthquakes or tsunamis
- serious road accidents
- terrorist attacks
- violent personal assaults, such as sexual assault, mugging or robbery
- witnessing violent deaths
The onset of PTSD varies after the experience of a disturbing event. At times it can be immediate or it may occur much later. PTSD can develop in any situation where a person feels extreme fear, horror or helplessness. However, it doesn’t usually develop after situations that are simply upsetting, such as divorce, job loss or failing exams.
Someone with PTSD will often relive the traumatic event through nightmares and flashbacks, and they may experience feelings of isolation, irritability and guilt. They may also have problems sleeping, such as insomnia, and find concentrating difficult. These symptoms are often severe and persistent enough to have a significant impact on the person’s day-to-day life.
Schizoid Personality Disorder
Schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) is a group of disorders that often demonstrate unusual behaviours. People with these disorders often appear odd or peculiar. People with schizoid personality disorder also tend to be distant, detached, and indifferent to social or close relationships. They generally are loners who prefer solitary activities and rarely express strong emotion. This person’s life is marked by little pleasure in activities. People with this disorder appear indifferent to the praise or criticism of others and often seem cold or aloof.
People with schizoid personality disorder are rarely violent, as they prefer not to interact with people. Although the names sound alike and they might have some similar symptoms, schizoid personality disorder is not the same thing as schizophrenia. Many people with schizoid personality disorder can function fairly well. They tend to choose jobs that allow them to work alone, such as night security officers and library or laboratory workers.
It is difficult to accurately assess the prevalence of this disorder because people with schizoid personality disorder rarely seek treatment. Schizoid personality disorder affects men more often than women and is more common in people who have close relatives with schizophrenia. Schizoid personality disorder usually begins in early adulthood.
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Disclaimer: Counselling or Psychotherapy Treatments are not a substitute for professional medical care by a qualified doctor or other health care professional. Always check with your doctor if you have any concerns about your condition or treatment. Clients are responsible for assessing the outcome of their treatment and are advised to refer to NICE guidelines for further information.